jQuery has animate method which is just awesome. Today I looked into jQuery source code to see exactly how animate works.
I will take a simple case of animating a div from height of 34 to 100.
Here is test case.
Html markup is .
Inside the animate for each property an fx object is created.
Next in the animate method is a call to e.custom .
start, end and unit values are gleaned from the current state of div.
Here is custom method .
As you can see every 13 milliseconds a call to step method is made.
step method is where real calculation is done. Here is the code.
this.startTime is the time when the call to animate was invoked. The step method is called periodically from custom method. So the value of t is constantly changing. Based on the value of t, value of n will change. Some of the values of n I got was 1, 39, 69, 376 and 387.
While invoking animate method I did not specify a speed. jQuery picked up the default speed of 400. In this case the value of this.options.duration is 400. The value of state would change in each run and it would something along the line of 0.0025, 0.09, 0.265, 0.915 and 0.945 .
If you don’t know what easing is then you should read this article by Brandon Aaron. Since I did not specify easing option, jQuery will pickup swing easing .
In order to get the value of next position this easing algorithm needs state, n and duration. When all of it was supplied then pos would be derived. The value of pos over the period of animation would change and it would be something like 0, 0.019853157161528467, 0.04927244144387716, 0.9730426794137726, 0.9973960708808632.
Based on the value of pos value of now is derived. And then update method is called to update the screen.
update method has following code that invokes _default method.
_default method has following code which finally updates the element.
fx.now value was set in the custom method and here that value was actually applied to the element.
You will have much better understanding of how animate works if you look at the source code. I just wanted to know at a high level what’s going on and these are my findings.
jQuery makes it extremely easy to deal with JSON data. In the below example server sends a success message to browser. The JSON data looks like this.
The jQuery code to handle JSON data looks like this.
It all looks good and the code works with jQuery 1.3 .
However if you upgrade to jQuery 1.4 then above code will stop working. Why? jQuery 1.4 does strict JSON parsing using native parse method and any malformed JSON structure will be rejected.
How jQuery 1.3 parses JSON structure
You will get a valid output.
JSON specification says that all string values must use double quotes. Single quotes are not allowed. What it means is that following JSON structures are not valid JSON.
However they will not work if you upgrade to jQuery 1.4 .
jQuery 1.4 uses native JSON parsing
As you can see a string which was successfully parsed by eval failed by window.JSON.parse . It might or might not fail in chrome. More on that later. Since jQuery 1.4 will rely on browsers parsing the JSON structure malformed JSON structures will fail.
In order to ensure that JSON is correctly parsed by the browsers, jQuery does some code cleanup to make sure that you are not trying to pass something malicious. You will not be able to test this thing directly using firebug but if you make an AJAX request and from server if you send response the you can verify the following code.
Following JSON structure will be correctly parsed in jQuery 1.3 . However the same JSON structure will fail in jQuery 1.4 . Why? Because of dangling open bracket [ .
jQuery attempts to parse JSON natively. However if native JSON parsing is not available then it falls back to eval. Here by setting window.JSON to null browser is faking that it does not have support for native JSON parsing.
Here are the twocommits which made most of the changes in the way parsing is done.
Use JSONLint if you want to play with various strings to see which one is valid JSON and which one is not.
If you look at jQuery 1.3 documentation for live method you will notice that the live method is not supported for following events:
blur, focus, mouseenter, mouseleave, change and submit .
jQuery 1.4 fixed them all.
In this article I am going to discuss how jQuery brought support for these methods in jQuery. If you want a little background on what is live method and how it works then you should read this article which I wrote sometime back.
focus and blur events
IE and other browsers do not bubble focus and blur events. And that is in compliance with the w3c events model. As per the spec focus event and blur event do not bubble.
However the spec also mentions two additional events called DOMFocusIn and DOMFocusOut. As per the spec these two events should bubble. Firefox and other browsers implemented DOMFocusIn/DOMFocusOut . However IE implemented focusin and focusout and IE made sure that these two events do bubble up.
jQuery team decided to pick shorter name and introduced two new events: focusin and focusout. These two events bubble and hence they can be used with live method. This commit makes focusin/focusout work with live method. Here is code snippet.
Once again make sure that you are using focusin/focusout instead of focus/blur when used with live .
mouseenter and mouseleave events
mouseenter and mouseleave events do not bubble in IE. However mouseover and mouseout do bubble in IE. If you are not sure of what the difference is between mouseenter and mouseover then watch this excellent screencast by Ben.
The fix that was applied to map for focusin can be replicated here to fix mousetner and mouseleave issue. This is the commit that fixed mouseenter and mouseleave issue with live method.
Two more events are left to be handled: submit and change. Before jQuery applies fix for these two events, jQuery needs a way to detect if a browser allows submit and change events to bubble or not. jQuery team does not favor browser sniffing. So how to go about detecting event support without browser sniffing.
In the comments section John Resig mentioned that this technique can also be used to find out if an event bubbles or not.
John committed following code to jQuery.
Next task is to actually make a change event or a submit event bubble if ,based on above code, it is determined that browse is not bubbling those events .
Making change event bubble
On a form a person can change so many things including checkbox, radio button, select menu, textarea etc. jQuery team implemented a full blown change tracker which would detect every single change on the form and will act accordingly.
Radio button, checkbox and select changes will be detected via change event. Here is the code.
In order to detect changes on other fields like input field, textarea etc keydown event would be used. Here it the code.
IE has a proprietary event called beforeactivate which gets fired before any change happens. This event is used to store the existing value of the field. After the click or keydown event the changed value is captured. Then these two values are matched to see if really a change has happened. Here is code for detecting the match.
In order to detect submission of a form, one needs to watch for click event on a submit button or an image button. Additionally one can hit ‘enter’ using keyboard and can submit the form. All of these need be tracked.
As you can see if a submit button or an image is clicked inside a form the submit event is triggered. Additionally keypress event is monitored and if the keyCode is 13 then the form is submitted.
Now go to jQuery homepage and execute the same code. Notice the difference in output. Why the difference?
Prototype adds additional methods to Array using Array.prototype . Those methods show up when you iterate through them. If you want to ignore methods added through Array.prototype then use this code.
In order to find if an element with id foo is present, one can do
How can you make the conditional statement shorter.
What is the output in this case. Notice that function bar is defined after the return statement.
What’s output in this case.
The result would be output 5 5 5 5 and all the four output will appear together in one shot. Then after 2 seconds another set of similar data would appear. This would continue forever.
Question is why do I see the output in one single shot and why do I see value 5 for all four cases.
Correct implementation would be
Above code would print 0 1 2 3 4 at an interval of 2 seconds.
What’s the output in this case.
What’s output in this case.
If I provide an array with certain values then how would you find the max value for that array.
This answer builds up on the answer provided in #7 .
You can try this but it will fail.
You can try this but it will fail too.
This will work
Following code has been tested with jQuery 1.3.2 version .
The super popular live method was added to jQuery 1.3 . It works just great. Except when it does not work. As per the documentation this method does not work in following cases: blur, focus, mouseenter, mouseleave, change, submit .
How binding events work in jQuery
In above case click event is bound to all the links in the document. jQuery stores such binding information as data attribute of the bound element. This is how I can access the list of all functions bound to an element.
If a new link is dynamically added then that new link will not get this click behavior. Tosolve this problem I can use live method.
Trying out live event
If I add a new a tag dynamically then that tag will automatically get the new click behavior. That’s great.
Just like the previous section, now I am going to find the events bound to a element. However when I execute following code I get undefined .
Why is that. In the previous section I showed that all the events bound to an element are stored as the data attribute of that element. Well, live is different. live events are not bound to the element directly. They are bound to the top level ‘document’. I can verify this by trying out this code
How does live method work
live methods do not set anything on elements directly. All the event handlers are set at the document level. It means that in order for live methods to work, event bubbling is required. If you don’t know what event bubbling is then read her . It also means that event should not be stopped while it is propagating to document. If event propagation is stopped then event handlers bound at the document level will never know about that event and live method will fail.
The strategy to let someone else deal with the event is called event delegation. You can read more about event delegation here .
When live method is called then a binding is done at the document level. Loosely translated this is what is basically happening.
As you can see when a click on p event bubbles all the way to the top then that event is captured by document and necessary action is taken if the target element matches.
It is clear that if the click event is stopped before it reaches document then live method will not work. I will show you an example.
Now you will notice that live is no more working.
live does not work when event bubbling is not supported
In the previous section I showed that when event does not bubble up to document then live fails. It means that all the events that do not bubble will not work. Which means that events like blur, focus, mouseenter, mouseleave, change and submit which do bubble in IE will not work in IE. However note that these events will continue to work in Firefox.
Above code will work in firefox but it will not work in IE.
Here is an example of an event that does not work in IE: onchange event.
To recap live method will not work in following cases:
live method works on event propagation, if an event is stopped while it is bubbling then live will not work.
IE does not support bubbling for certain events. live method on those events will not work in IE.
There is a way to get around to both the problems.
Brandon Aaron developed livequery plugin which was finally merged into jQuery as live method. livequery plugin solves both the problems listed above and the code works in IE too.
First step is to include this plugin
Now try this code.
livequery works because livequery ,unlike live, method does not do binding at the document level. livequery does binding at the element level. You can find that out by running following code.
Above code will produce result if I am using livequery. Above code will not produce any result if I am using live method.
The key piece of code in the plugin that makes all this work is
Every 20 milliseconds livequery runs all the bindings defined in livequery and then binds the matched element with the event.
By understanding the internals of how live and livequery are implemented, now you can choose to use livequery in certain cases where live will not work. Also it helps to understand how live actually works.
Live method finds elements and then throws it away. Not very efficient.
A typical use of live method is something like this.
As it has already been discussed a live method registers events at document level.
However when $('p').live(...) is evaluated then jQuery first goes and finds all the p elements. And then what does it do with those elements. Nothing. That’s right. jQuery throws away all those p elements which were just found without using them. What a waste.
If your application has a lot of live methods and this might slow down the performance of the application.
A better solution would have been to design an API like this one:
jQuery is flexible and I can create my own live method but it will add to the confusion. Another solution would be to make the call to live method without first finding all those p element. Here is how it can be done.
In the above case no element will be selected only to be thrown away. This is much better.
Seeing is believing
In the previous section, I showed how live method can be made to work without first selecting the elements. However a friend of mine asked me if I could conclusively prove that in the real live method a find is actually done. And in my solution a find call is not done.
Here I am showing you the overriding find method. In this method I am overriding the original find method. I will put a log message before passing the find method to the original method.
In the above case you will get message on firebug console confirming that find is indeed invoked when live method is called.
Also I had to comment out +process jsl-test.js at the very bottom. Now tell your plugin to to use this configuration file rather than the default one. Add the following line to your vimrc file.
This is the vim settings I use and it has been configured to take care of it. Just go to vimrc.local and change the path to your config file. Also don’t forget to remove " at the beginning of the line to uncomment it.
Now there is a need for function second to call function first. Try this and it will fail.
One way to fix this problem is to hardcode value foo inside the second function. Following code works.
Above code works but hardcoding the value of foo inside the object literal is not good. A better way would be to replace the hardcoded name with this .
All is good.
Also note that in order to invoke the returned function I have double ()() at the end.
Above code does not work. It did not work because this has changed. Now this in second function refers to the global object rather than referring to the foo object.
jQuery also allows developers to make use of custom events. How it is going to help us, we are going to see it shortly. First let’s take a look at a basic calendar application.
Code looks like this.
In the above case we have four methods. If all the implementation is filled out and helper methods are added then ,in total, we’ll have tons of methods.
And slowly, it’ll become difficult to see which methods act on the main element monthly_calendar_umbrella.
Let’s look at the same functionality if implemented using jQuery custom events.
First difference, you will notice is how nicely all the actions possible on the main element are laid out. In this case just one look at the code tells me that four actions can be performed on the main element. This was not so obvious from the first version of the code.
In this case, I am binding events such as ‘redrawFroMonth’ to the element. Obviously ‘redrawForMonth’ is not a native event such as ‘click’ or ‘submit’. This is what I mean by binding ‘custom events’ to elements. In this case ‘redrawForMonth’ is a custom event.
Now, the last part of the discussion is how to trigger custom events. Well, jQuery has a method called trigger .
Note that while binding a function is passed. The first parameter of that function is always an event handler. In the below example I am passing only one parameter even though the function takes two parameters: event handler element and the parameter I defined.
Let’s say that I have bound all the links to display an alert.
However it would be cool if there is a way to find all the click handlers associated with an element.
jQuery has data method which it uses internally to store information. jQuery uses data method to store all the handlers associated with an element. We could use this information to our advantage. Here I am trying to find out all the click handlers associated with the first link.
The output looks like this
jQuery.data method is also very useful if you want to store some information about an element. For example, in an application you need to store information about people. In the html page you are only displaying names. And when a name is clicked then you want to display age, hometown and the company they work for. You can store information about each user using jQuery.data and you can retrieve it when user name is clicked.
When you click on Java then you will get two alerts. That is because the click on element p will propagate outward and it will be caught by element div which has onclick trigger.
If you do not want the event to propagate then here is a way to stop it.
Stopping the default behavior
Converting a regular html link into an AJAX request is easy. One of the things you need to do is to return false so that the click operation does not perform its default behavior.
However there is another way to handle such cases. preventDefault stops the default behavior. The same code could be written as
In order to get around this security problem you can do any number of things including sending the Ajax request to your server which will get the JSON data from the eventsinindia.com API. Or use iframe. Both of these solutions are implemented and discussed in this article .
However in some cases JSONP solves this problem much more elegantly.
Before we discuss JSONP some basics ?
When the html page is loaded you will get an alert.
What is JSONP?
All the APIs should provide support for JSONP. Enabling JSONP support is easy if you are using Rails 2.3 or any Rack compliant framework. In Rails 2.3 all you need to do is stick this file in lib as jsonp.rb and then add one line to the environment.rb .
That’s it. Now you are providing support of JSONP with the keyword being callback.
I was hoping that I will get a dot after every two seconds. But that’s not what happens when you run the code. I see nothing for first 10 seconds then I see five dots in one shot. This is not what I wanted.
I started looking around at the documentation for IO class and found the method called sync= which if set to true will flush all output immediately to the underlying OS.
The reason why OS does not flush immediately is to minimize the IO operation which is usually slow. However in this case you are asking OS to not to buffer and to flush the output immediately.
Before you look at the next piece of code remember that defining a variable without the var prefix makes that variable a global variable.
What do you think would be the alert value first time? I thought it would be Angelina but the correct answer is undefined. That is because it does not matter where the variable is defined. As long as the variable is defined anywhere within a function then that variable will be set to undefined. It is when the statement is executed then the value of the variable changes from undefined to Jennifer.
What are we talking about
You can see that the main method that I want to expose to global namespace is showCalendar. However I am also exposing six other functions to global namespace. It means that if some user has declared a global namespace function named getCellID then my getCellID is going to collide with the user’s function. This is not good.
The above call to getCellID is currently being executed successfully. It means I have polluted the global namespace. I am going to fix it.
The solution is to put all the code inside a function. In a function all the variables and functions declared are scoped only to that function. Out of that function, inner functions cannot be used. Inside this function only one method showCalendar would be exposed.
Here is the solution.
In the above case the call to showCalendar was successful. However call to getCallID failed. That’s good. It means I am not polluting the global namespace.
If you notice carefully in the above case after declaring an anonymous function I am invoking that function by having () at the end. You can read more about self-invoking function here .
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