In ruby procs have lexical scoping. What does that even mean. Let’s start with a simple example.
So even though variable
x is present, the proc could not find it because when the code was read then
x was missing .
Let’s fix the code.
In the above case we got the answer. But the answer is
400 instead of
4 . That is because the proc binding refers to the variable
x. The binding does not hold the value of the variable, it just holds the list of variables available. In this case the value of
x happens to be
20 when the code was executed and the result is
x does not have to a variable. It could be a method. Check this out.
In the above case
x is a method definition. Notice that binding is smart enough to figure out that since no
x variable is present let’s try and see if there is a method by name
Another example of lexical binding in procs
In the above case the value of
x is set as
20 at the code compile time. Don’t get fooled by
2 inside the method call. Inside the method call a new scope starts and the
x inside the method is not the same
x as outside .
Issues because of lexical scoping
Here is a simple case.
In the above case when
Developer.new.name is executed then output is
Person. And that can cause problem. For example in Ruby on Rails at a number of places
self is used to determine if the model that is being acted upon is
STI or not. If the model is
STI then for
Developer the query will have an extra where clause like
AND "people"."type" IN ('Developer') . So we need to find a solution so that
self reports correctly for both
Person and ‘Developer` .
instance_eval can change self
instance_eval can be used to change self. Here is refactored code using
Above code produces right result. However
instance_eval has one limitation. It does not accept arguments. Let’s change the proc to accept some arguments to test this theory out.
In the above case we get an error. That’s because
instance_eval does not accept arguments.
This is where
instance_exec comes to rescue. It allows us to change
self and it can also accept arguments.
instance_exec to rescue
Here is code refactored to use
As you can see in the above code
instance_exec reports correct
self and the proc can also accept arguments .
I hope this article helps you understand why
instance_exec is useful.
I scanned RubyOnRails source code and found around 26 usages of
instance_exec . Look at the usage of
instance_exec usage there to gain more understanding on this topic.